Sunday, 22 March 2015

Current Affairs Daily updates : Important Points of 21th march 2015

Important days

  • World Puppet Day
  • World Syndrome Day
  • World Forestry Day
  • International Day for the elimination of racial Discrimination observed today

International Affair

 Today is observed as World puppet Day , this day was declared by UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation) in 1999 for the promotion of poetry throughout the World.

World Down Syndrome Day is observed Today.

International Day for the elimination of racial Discrimination observed today

National Affair

 Cabinet has approved Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana to provide skills training to youth of the Country with fund of Rs 1,500 crore rupees.

 Cabinet also cleared introducing the Appropriation Acts Repeal Bill, 2015 in Parliament.

International conference on counter terrorism organized in Jaipur today for three days.

  • This conference was organized by Rajastan government in collaboration with India foundation and Sardar Patel University of police, security and criminal justice , inaugurated by Rajnath Singh (Union minister).

Science and Technology

 China has launched world’s 1st hydrogen – powered tramcar , China became only country got mastery in this technology.

 China also completed its 1st commercial flight using biofuel, U.S was 1st to use this technology.   

Deaths

Krishnarao Sable popularly known as “Shahir Sable” a singer of Maharastra culture passed away.

Sports

New Zealand into the semifinals beating West Indies.

New Zealand opener Martin Guptill hits double century and became 1st batsman to score double ton in word cup knockout match (HIGHEST WORLS CUP SCORE).

Business and Economy

HDFC Bank has launched “Chillr” a mobile aap in collaboration with MobME (Kochin base technology firm).

Awards and Honors

Rajendera Singh an Environment activist of India known as “water man” has been conferred with Stockholms water Prize 2015 for his efforts to give life to thousands of villagers in Rajasthan.

Sweden’s king Carl Gustav will present the rainwater harvesting pioneer with a cash prize 1,50,000 Dollar during the World water week.

Lata Mangeskar was presented the “Laadli voice if the Century” award during 6th National laadli Media and Advertising Award for the gender sensitivity.

  •  Movie Queen won the best movie award in the ceremony.
  •  Ogilvy and Mather (Advertising agency), won the “Laadli Grand Prix” for its Titan raga – “ tum nhi badle” advertisement
  •  Charu Khurana won Laadli extraordinaire award.

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Ques: Who among the following has been crowned as Miss universe 2015?
1) Nia Sanchez
2) Koyal Rana
3) Paulina Vega
4) Diana Harkusha

Ques: Lima is the Capital and Largest city of?
1) Bolivia
2) Peru
3) Chile
4) Poland

 
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Current Affairs Daily updates : Important Points of 20th march 2015

International Affair

 Today is observed as world sparrow day.

  •  This day was started by Nature Forever Society of India in collaboration of different national and international organization of the world for awareness of house sparrow and other related birds.

 Today is International day of happiness , this day was established by United nations general assembly on 28 June 2012.

World day of theatre for children and young people is observed today.

 Suicide bombing at Sanaa capital of Yemen killed 77 people

  •  President of Yemen – Abd Rabbuh Mansur Hadi

 Indian and U.S are in process of exchanging Administrative Arrangements for the nuclear deal , this deal was finalized in month of January when Obama came to India.
  
National Affair

 Delhi is in process to launch E-ration card service 1st of its kind , this E-ration card will be linked to aadhaar card with a view to control corruption and give transparency.

Mines and Minerals Amendment bill passed by Rajya Sabha , this is 2nd major bill approval received by legislature after Insurance Laws (Amendment Bill), seeking hike FDI in insurance sector was 1st major reform passed by Parliament

 Cabinet approved 33% reservation for women in police force of Union territory including delhi

 Government has launched portal for consumer welfare, named as www.Gama.Gov.in

  • Consumer affair minister Ram Vilas Paswan launched this scheme
  • Grahak Suvidha Kendra was also launched related to same purpose

 Cabinet approved Rs.1500 crore for Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY).

  • PMKVY is a scheme for skilled training of the youth implemented by skill development and entrepreneurship through National skill development corporation (NSDC). 

Books and Authors

Sumitra Mahajan , Speaker of lok Sabha released the book “Indian parliamentary Diplomacy – Speaker’s Perspective” , written by Miera Kumar who was former speaker of lok Sabha , President Pranab Mukherjee  has received 1st copy of the book.

Awards and Honours

I&B secretary Bimal Julka conferred today 4th National Photo Awards
  •  Life time Achievement Award  –  Suresh R. Patel  
  •  Best professional Photographer -  Swarup Dutta 
  •  Best Amateur Photographer – R. Sasikumar
Sports

 Australia defeated Pakistan by six wickets to face India in second semifinal.



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Ques: Patrick Modiano was awarded the 2014 Nobel prize for
1) Economics Sciences
2) Medicine
3) Physics
4) Literature
5) Chemistry

Ques: Name the winter storm which hits the US recently.
1) Juno
2) Katrina
3) Elena
4) Camile
5) Baker
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Friday, 20 March 2015

Current Affairs Daily updates : Important Points of 19th march 2015

International Affair

IMF (International Monetary fund) chief Christine Lagarde will visit China.

About IMF:

o Chief – Charistine Lagarde

o HQ – Washington D.C

o Type – International financial organization

 Government of Sri-Lanka may ban on Tamil diaspora group and individuals imposed by Mahinda Rajapaksa for their links to Liberation Tigers of Tamil Ealam (LTTE).                   

Sri Lanka Foreign Minister : Mangala Samaraweera.


National Affairs

International Conference on Counter Terrorism  Begins in Jaipur.

o Rajnath Singh (Union Minister) inaugurated this conference.

o This conference is a global platform for all the government agencies , field expert, research institute all over the world.

1st National and Photography & Videography Workshop  began at New Delhi

o Rajyavardhan Rathore (Minister of state for Information and Broadcasting)

 Election commission has decided that ballot papers will also consist of pictures of candidates besides their names and symbols , this is done to remove the confusion between different candidates expert, research institute all over the world inaugurated this event.



New Appointments

Ratan tata (former chairman of Tata sons) appointed as head of “Kayakulp” council.

About Kayakalp council :

o It is a innovative council of Indian Railways to recommend innovative process.

o Suresh Prabhu ( Railway Minister) also comprised of this council.

Venkatraman Ramakrishnan appointed as President of Royal Society replacing sir Paul Nurse.


About Royal Society:

o It is a society for science and possibly oldest such society in existence.

o Founded – 1660

o HQ – (U.K) London

and methods for improvements and betterment in Indian railways.

Sports

 India into semifinals by defeating Bangladesh.

 Rohit Sharma became man of the match.

 M S Dhoni became the 1st Indian captain to lead India to 100 ODI wins.



Important Questions

Ques: Where is the Headquarter of IMF?
1) Geneva, Switzerland
2) New York
3) Washington D.C
4) Vienna, Austria

Ques: Which educational institution topped the World Reputation Rankings 2015 that was released by Times Higher Education on 12 March 2015?
1) Harvard University
2) Massachusetts Institute of Technology
3) University of Oxford
4) Stanford University

Ques: Who was nominated as the Ambassador to Pakistan by the United States (US) President Barack Obama on 11 March 2015?
1) David Hale
2) Cameron Munter
3) Anne W Patterson
4) Richard G Olson


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Current Affairs Daily updates : Important Points of 18th march 2015


International Affair

China became world’s 3rd largest exporter of arms (5% of the world’s exporter of arms)

according to the report published by Stockholm International Peace Research Institute

(SIPRI)

  Top 5 exporters of Major Weapons:

o U.S – 31%

o Russia – 27%

o China – 5%

o Germany – 5%

o France – 5%

 India will hold one of the biggest meet in China to celebrate the 1st International yoga

day , the meet being organized in Dujiangyan in Chengdu from 17th June – 21st June

2015, over 10,000 yoga enthusiast likely to take part in this meet

 Germany, France ,Italy followed by Britain is announcing that they plan to join Aisan

Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB)

 About AIIB:

o AIIB is an international financial institution proposed by China  , the purpose of

o It is assumed to be rival of World bank ,IMF , Asian development bank (ADB)

it is to provide finance to infrastructure projects in Asia region

dominated by developed countries like US.


National Affairs

National green tribunal passed a string of directions to clear the railways , the tribunal

empowered the Railway to impose fine of Rs 5,000 on anyone found guilt.


Awards and Honors

Union HRD minister Smriti Irani Among 187 Young global Leaders (YGLs) listed by

World economic forum (WEF).
   

New Appointments  

Kavinder Gupta, a BJP legislator elected as speaker of Jammu and Kashmir legislative

Assembly.



Science and Technology

Astra air to air missile , Beyond Visual range (BVR) was successfully launched from

Sukhoi-30 fighter aircraft Chandipur in Odisha.

Astra is the smallest of all missiles developed by DRDO

 About DRDO:

o Established – 1958

o HQ – New Delhi

o Chief – Avinash Chander

o Under department of Defence (Manohar parrikar – defence minister).


Sports

 South Africa into semifinals thrashing Sri Lanka by 9 wickets in Sydney.

General Knowledge Question:

Ques: Who won the men’s singles title of the Swiss Open of Badminton on 15 March 2015?
1) lu kai
2) Sun yu
3) Viktor Alexson
4) kidambi Srikanth

Ques: HDFC bank on 17th March 2015 Launched the mobile app?
1) m-pesa
2) Oxigen
3) Pockets
4) Chillr

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Wednesday, 18 March 2015

Current Affairs Daily updates : Important Points of 17th march 2015



Important daily points that are very helpful, if you are preparing for exams. This file consist of all important International, National, Science and Technology, Sports and Banking awareness facts.

Important Days of 17th March :
  •  Saint Patrick’s Day 
  •  Evacuation Day-USA
  •  Kaila Devi fair

International Affair :
  • Pakistan today hanged 12 convicts of Peshawar blast case in which 150 people killed (mostly children) , Largest number execution on single day.
  • India and Kyrgyzstan signed memorandum of understanding (MOU) to cooperation in textile industry. Indian minister of state for textile Santosh Kumar Gangwar.

National Affair :
  • Today is birth anniversary of kalpana chawla (1st Indian women to reach space)
  • Supreme cout set aside centre’s notification to include people of Jat community in OBC (Other Backward Classes)
  • Parliament passed Rail Budget
  • Haryana Assembly passed Gauvansh Sanrakshan and Gausamvardhan  Bill 2015 , which includes complete ban on cow slaughter in the state and jail upto 3 – 10 Years
  • Black money bill cleared by cabinet likely to be introduced in current session of parliament  

New Appointments :  

  • Minoti Apte (56 yr’s old Indian) cancer researcher in Australia has been named New South Wales (NSW) Women of the Year 2015 for her contribution in to Medical research , tertiary education and Indian Community
  
Deaths :
  • D K Ravikumar (IAS officer ) found dead at his official flat under mysterious circumstances
  • Veteran Malayalam singer and music composer Bombay S. Kamal passed away

Sports :
  • ICC world cup at Knock – stage , South Africa VS Sri Lanka in 1st quarter –final at Sydney tomorrow
  • About ICC:  ICC – International Cricket Council
              Headquarters – Dubai
              1st Chairman of ICC – N. Srinivasan (India)
              President of ICC – Mustafa Kamal (Bangladesh)
              Present CEO of ICC – David Richards (South Africa)

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Thursday, 12 March 2015

JAINISM IN INDIA




History Of Jainism Religion

  • Founded by Rishabhanath.
  • There were 24 Tirthankaras (Prophestor Gurus), all Kshatriyas. First was Rishabhanath (Emblem: Bull). His references is also 4n Rigveda. But there is no historical basis for the first 22  Tirthankaras. Only the last two Tirthankaras are historical personalities.
  • The 23rd Tirthankar Parshwanath (Emblem: Snake) was the son of King Ashvaesnaof Banaras. His main teachings were: Non- injury, Non- lying, Non-stealing, Non-possession.
  • The 24th and the last Trithankar was Vardhman Mahavira (Emblem: Lion).

Vardhman Mahavira History :

  • He was born in Kundagram ( Distt Muzaffarpur, Bihar) in 599 BC.
  • His father Siddhartha was the head of Jnatrika clan. His mother was Trishla, sister of Lichchavi Prince Chetak of Vaishali.
  • Mahavira was related to Bimbisara.
  • Married to Yashoda, had a daughter named Priyadarsena, whose husband Jamali became his first disciple.
  • At 30, after the death of his parents, he become an ascetic.
  • In the 13th year of his asceticism (on the 10th of Vaishakaha), outside the town of Jrimbhikgrama, he attained supreme knowledge (Kaivalya).
  • From  now on he was called Jaina or Jitendriya and Mahavira, and his followers were named Jains. He also got the title of Arihant, i.e. worthy.
  • At the age of 72, he attained death at Pava, near Patna in 527 BC.
  • Mahavira preached almost the same message as Parshvanath and added one more. Brahmacharya (celibacy) to it.
  • After the death of Mahavira, during the reign of King Chandragupta Maurya, a serve famine led to a great exodus of Jain monks from the Ganga valley to the Deccan, where they established important centers of their faith.
  • This migration led to a great schism in Jainism. Bhadrabahu, who led the emigrants, insisted on the retention of the rule of nudity which Mahavira had established.
  • Sthulabhadra, the leader of the monks who remained in the north, allowed his followers to wear white garments, owing to the hardships and confusions of the famine. Hence arose the two sects of the Jains, the Digambaras (sky-clad, i.e. naked) and the Svetambaras (white-clad).

Teachings of Mahavira :

Rejected the authority of the Vedas and do not attach any importance to the performance of sacrifices.


  • He believed that every object, even the smallest particle, possesses a soul and is endowed with consciousness. That is why they observe strict non-violence.
  • The Jains reject the concept of a universal Soul or a Supreme Power as the creator or Sustainer of the Universe.
  • Jainism does not deny the existence of gods but refuses to give gods any important part in die universe scheme. Gods are placed lower than the Jina.
  • Attainment of salvation (moksha) by believing in penance and dying of starvation (Main difference between Jainism and Buddhism).
  • Universal brotherhood(non-belief in caste system).
Important: In Jainism, three Ratnas (Triratnas) are given and they are called the way to Nirvana. They are Right Faith, Right Knowledge and Right Conduct.

History of Jain Councils:


First Council: Held at Pataliputra by Sthulabhadra in the beginning of third century BC. It resulted in the compilation of 12 Angas to replace 14 Purvas.
Second Council: It was held at Vallabhai (Gujarat) in the fifth century AD under the leadership of Devridhigani. It resulted in final compilation of 12 Angas and 12 Upangas.

Growth of Jainism is India:

Causes of New Movement:
  • The Vedic rituals were expensive & the sacrifies prescribed were very complicated  & had lost their meaning.
  • The caste system had become rigid.
  • Supremacy of Brahmins created unrest.
  • All the religious text was in Sanskrit, which was not understandable to the masses.
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Monday, 9 March 2015

Buddhism in India: Ancient Buddhism in India

Buddhism stands for 3 pillars: 

1) Buddha: Its founder
                                           
2) Dhamma: His Teachings
                                          
3) Sangha: Order of buddhist monks and nuns.


The Buddha History:


  • Also known as Sakyamuni or Tathagata.
  • born in 563 BC on the Vaishakha Poornima Day at Lumbini (near Kapilavastu) in Nepal.
  • His father Suddhodana was the Saka ruler.
  • His mother ( Mahamaya of Kosala dynasty) died after 7 days of his birth. Brought up by stepmother Gautami.
  • Married ad 16 to Yoshodhara. Enjoyed the married life for 13 years and had a son named Rahula.
  • After seeing an old man, a sick man, a corpse and  an ascetic, he decided to became a wanderer.
  • Left his palace at 29( with Channa , the charioteer and his favorite horse, Kanthaka) in search of truth ( also called 'Mahabhinishkramana' or ' the Great renunciation) and wandered for 6 years.
  • He first meditated with Alara Kalama, But he was not convinced that man could obtain liberation fron sorrow by mental discipline and knowledge. His next teacher was Udraka Ramputra. he then joined forces with five ascetcs- Kondana, Vappa, Bhadiya, Mahanama and Assagi, who were practicing the most rigorous self- mortification in the hope of wearing away their Karma and obtaining final bliss.
  • For six years he tortured himself until he was nothing but a walking skeleton. But after six years, he felt that his fasts and penance had been useless. So he abandoned there things. the five disciples also left him.
  • Attained 'Nirvana' or ' Enlightenment' at 35 at Gaya in Magadha ( Bihar) under the pipal tree.
  • Delivered the first sermon at Sarnath where his five disciples had settled. His first sermon is called 'Dharmachakrapravartan' or 'Turning of the Wheel of Law'.
  • Attained Mahaparinivarna at Kushinagar (identical with village kasia in Deoris district of Uttar Pradesh) in 483 BC at the age of 80 in the Malla Republic.



The Dhamma Indian History:

1. The Four Great Truths:
  • The world is full of sorrow and misery.
  • The cause of all pain and misery is desire.
  • Pain and misery can be ended by killing or controlling desire.
  • Desire can be controlled by following the Eight Fold Path.

2. The Eight Fold Path:

  • It consist of Right Faith, Right Thought , Right Action, Right Livelihood, Right Efforts, Right Speech, Right Remembrance and Right Concentration.

3. Belief in Nirvana :

  • When desire ceases, Rebirth ceases and nirvana is attained i.e. freedom from the cycle of birth, death and rebirth is gained by following the 8 fold path.
  • According to Buddha, soul is a myth.

4. Belief in Ahimsa :
  • One should not cause injury to any living being, animal or man.

5. Law of Karma :
  • Man reaps the fruits of his past deeds.

The Sangha History :

  • Consists of monks(Bhikshus or Shramanas) and nuns.
  • Bhikshus acted as a torch bearer of the dhamma.
  • Apart from Sangha, the worshippers were called Upasakas.

Buddhists Council :

The Monks gathered 4 times after the death of Buddha and the effect of these  events had their effect on Buddhism.



First Council:

At Rajgriha, in 483 BC under the chairman ship of Mehakassaapa (King was Ajatshatru). Diveded the teachings of Buddha into two Pitakas- Vihaya Pitaka and Sutta Pitaka. Upali recited the Vinaya Pitaka and Ananda recited the Sutta Pitaka.

Second Council:

At Vaishali, in 383 BC under Sabakami (King was Kalasoka) . Followers diveided into Sthavirmadins and Mahasanghikas.

Third Council:

At Pataliputra, in 250 BC under Mogaliputta Tissa (King was Ashoka). In This , the third part of the Tripitaka was coded in the Pali language.

Fourth Council:  

At kashmir (Kundalvan), in 72 AD under Vasumitra (King was kanishka). Vice Chairmanwas Ashwaghosha. Divided Buddhism into mahayana and Hinayana sects.


Important : In Mahayana, idol worship is there. It become popular in China, Japan, Korea, Afghanistan, Turkey and other Se countries.

Hinayana become popular in Magadha and srilanka. It believed in Individual salvation and not in idol worship. Apart from these two, there is a third vechile, called ' Vajrayana', which appeared in 8th century and grew rapidly in Bihar and Bengal. They did not treat meat, fish, wine etc, as a taboo in dietary habit and freely consumed them.


Buddhism Literature :

In pali language.
Buddhist scriptures in pali are commonly reffered to as Tripitakas, i.e. "Threefold Basket".
  • Vinaya Pitaka: rules of disciplines in Buddhist monasteries.
  • Sutta Pitaka: Largest, contains collection of Buddha's sermons.
  • Abhidhamma Pitaka: Explanation of the philosophical principles of the Buddhist religion. 

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